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liquid metal cooled reactor advantages and disadvantages

A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal. Clementine was the first liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor and used mercury coolant, thought to be the obvious choice since it is liquid at room temperature. Therefore, be careful when you argue for or against thorium reactors. Gas phase. Nuclear reactor - Nuclear reactor - Types of reactors: Most of the world’s existing reactors are power reactors, providing the heat needed to turn turbines that run electric-power generators. The following features are not general for all scintillators. 4. It has been tested by Ukrainian researchers and was proposed to convert the boiling water reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster into liquid tin cooled reactors.[6]. Metals in liquid state have good thermal conductivity and high temperature can be had at moderate pressure. Containment systems and major nuclear accidents, From production reactors to commercial power reactors. Other articles where Graphite-moderated reactor is discussed: nuclear reactor: Other power reactor types: …in the traditional PWR; sodium-cooled graphite-moderated reactors; and heavy-water reactors built in a pressure-vessel design. Further advantages of tin are the high boiling point and the ability to build a crust even over liquid tin helps to cover poisonous leaks and keeps the coolant in and at the reactor. A large variety of reactor types have been built and operated on an experimental basis. Capacity factor refers to the ratio of time that a reactor is operating at full power during a given period versus the total available time during that same period. A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant and/or the fuel is a molten salt mixture. It is also called as Gas Cooled Graphite Moderated (GCGM) reactor. Liquid phase. In practice, all liquid metal cooled reactors are fast-neutron reactors, and to date most fast neutron reactors have been liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), or naval propulsion units. Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Fuel Assemblies — Operational Behaviour No. 24. While some LMRs are of the loop type, equipped with heat exchangers and pumps outside the primary reactor vessel, others are of the pool variety, featuring a large volume of primary sodium in a pool that also contains the primary pumps and the primary-to-secondary heat exchanger. [4] The main advantage was that the sodium coolant could carry more heat than the water coolant of the Nautilus, generate more steam, and thus, from simple thermodynamics, result in a more efficient production of energy. CHAPTER 18 INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID METAL FUEL REACTORS 18-1. • Sodium works as a coolant and graphite works as moderator. The LMF- The Liquid Metal Fuel Gas-Cooled Reactor (LMF-GCR) design is unique in that it combines inert gas cooling with the advantageous liquid … 2. The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) was developed in the United Kingdom as the successor to reactors of the Calder Hall class, which combined plutonium production and power generation. IAEA NUCLEAR ENERGY SERIES PUBLICATIONS STRUCTURE … The Calder Hall reactor design was fueled with slugs of natural uranium metal canned in aluminum, was cooled with carbon dioxide, and employed a moderator consisting of a block of graphite pierced by fuel channels. The United States, France, and Russia have done most of the development in this area. Some of the following points can be valid for one reactor design and another point can be invalid for another thorium-based reactor. 3. Thorium is usually thrown away during the process of mining rare-earth metals. Liquid Solid: 1. Sodium-cooled fast-neutron-spectrum liquid-metal reactors (LMRs) received much attention during the 1960s and ’70s when it appeared that their breeding capabilities would soon be needed to supply fissile material to a rapidly expanding nuclear industry. The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR; often pronounced lifter) is a type of molten salt reactor.LFTRs use the thorium fuel cycle with a fluoride-based, molten, liquid salt for fuel.In a typical design, the liquid is pumped between a critical core and an external heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to a nonradioactive secondary salt. Liquid metal cooled reactor. Lower thermal power of the reactor core, compact architecture and employment of passive concepts have the potential for enhanced safety and security compared to earlier designs and large commercial reactors. The first of these is the Liquid Metal Fuel Gas-Cooled Reactor. Liquid metal cooled reactors were first adapted for nuclear submarine use but have also been extensively studied for power generation applications. Conventional commercial nuclear reactors operate with slow [thermal] neutrons. The basic diagram of gas cooled reactor power plant is shown in figure, Gas Cooled Reactor Power plant | enggarena.net Gas Cooled Reactor Power Plant It uses natural Uranium as fuel. However, doing so results in too much power consumption and heat generation. Conversely, if the coolant can be prevented from boiling this allows the pressure in the cooling system to remain at neutral levels, and this dramatically reduces the probability of an accident. It is also called as Gas Cooled Graphite Moderated (GCGM) reactor. This feature has given the CANDU higher capacity factors than other reactor types. In the secondary loop, the Nak in liquid form is used as coolant. The pool type seems to have some safety advantage in that the large volume of primary sodium heats up only slowly even if no power is extracted; thus, the reactor is effectively isolated from upsets in the balance of the plant. In the AGR, fuel pins clad in Zircaloy (a trademark for alloys of zirconium having low percentages of chromium, nickel, iron, and tin) and loaded with approximately 2 percent enriched uranium dioxide are placed into zirconium-alloy channels that pierce a graphite moderator block. The Soviet November-class submarine K-27 and all seven Alfa-class submarines used reactors cooled by a lead-bismuth alloy (VT-1 reactors in K-27; BM-40A and OK-550 reactors in others). Mercury. One of the primary technological rainbows that might lead to this pot of gold is to use reactors that are cooled by liquid metal, with the common choices being limited to sodium, lead, or a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium called NaK. To improve cooling with water, most reactor designs are highly pressurized to raise the boiling point, which presents safety and maintenance issues that liquid metal designs lack. The first of these is the Liquid Metal Fuel Gas-Cooled Reactor. IAEA NUCLEAR ENERGY SERIES PUBLICATIONS STRUCTURE OF THE IAEA NUCLEAR ENERGY SERIES Under the terms of Articles III.A and VIII.C of its Statute, the IAEA is authorized to … The fuel in nuclear fission reactors is usually based on the metal oxide. This key role in advanced fuel cycles and new, innovative applications have revived the interest in various alternative fast reactor concepts such as liquid heavy metal and gas-cooled systems which, in the longer term, are perceived to have some advantages over the conventional sodium-cooled fast reactors. In all types the heat extracted from the core by primary sodium is transferred to a secondary, nonradioactive sodium loop, which serves as the heat source for a steam generator that heats the water in a tertiary loop to power a turbine. Background. Clementine was the very first liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor and used mercury coolant, thought to be the obvious choice since it is liquid at room temperature. Dungeness B, a nuclear power plant using an advanced gas-cooled reactor, located at Dungeness Point, Kent, England. The dual fluid reactor (DFR) is a German project combining the advantages of the molten salt reactor with the ones of the liquid metal cooled reactor. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed SSTAR is a lead-cooled design.. Germany. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors: Experience in Design and Operation ... and an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of sodium as a coolant, giving due consideration to advances in the technology and design of sodium components. However, because lead has a high melting point and a high vapor pressure, it is tricky to refuel and service a lead cooled reactor. There is also interest in LMFRs due to their potential to reduce the lifetime and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste through fission of long-lived nuclear waste components. Sodium-cooled fast-neutron-spectrum liquid-metal reactors (LMRs) received much attention during the 1960s and ’70s when it appeared that their breeding capabilities would soon be needed to supply fissile material to a rapidly expanding nuclear industry. A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal.Liquid metal cooled reactors were first adapted for nuclear submarine use but have also been extensively studied for power generation applications. The light-water steam exiting the steam generator in the secondary loop is then transported through a conventional turbine cycle. This limits the amount of water that can be allowed to flow through the reactor core, and since fast reactors have a high power density most designs use molten metals instead. The dual fluid reactor (DFR) is a German project combining the advantages of the molten salt reactor with the ones of the liquid metal cooled reactor. When it became clear in the 1980s that this was not a realistic expectation, enthusiasm waned. A gas cooled reactor was first developed in U.K. which uses C02 as coolant instead of water and graphite as moderator. Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) – Advantages and Disadvantages Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR): It is a thermal reactor, using enriched uranium oxide, clad in zircalloy as fuel. The second nuclear submarine, USS Seawolf was the only U.S. submarine to have a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant. Liquid sodium (Na) serves as the primary coolant and an alloy of sodium potassium (NaK) as the secondary coolant. The liquid Nak gets heated in the primary loop heat exchanger after taking heat from hot sodium. They do not need to be at pressure to transfer heat in the range the core is effective. The result of this policy is the Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor—a line of natural uranium-fueled reactors moderated and cooled by heavy water. There are, as in everything, tradeoffs. Reactor (SGR): The reactor shown in figure uses two liquid metal coolants. Pharmaceutical. Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Power Plant | Advantages and Disadvantages 05:00 Fast Breeder Reactors, Nuclear energy, Nuclear Power Plant ... this reactor also uses two liquid metal coolants in which sodium is used as primary coolant and sodium-potassium as secondary coolant. Thorium is weakly radioactive, has a high melting point, and is available with more abundance than uranium as an element. There are also numerous research reactors, and some navies of the world have submarines or surface ships driven by propulsion reactors. The liquid Nak gets heated in the primary loop heat exchanger after taking heat from hot sodium. A new assembly is simply pushed into one end of a pressure tube, and the spent fuel that it replaces is collected as it is extruded at the opposite end. Such a reactor is suitable for countries that do not plan to build their own nuclear infrastructure. In the USA sodium was chosen as LMC as it possessed the better thermo-hydraulic characteristics. Advantages: Liquid cooling versus air cooling a PC. Metal Cooled Reactors usually use liquid sodium or a combination of sodium and potassium. Liquid metal cooling is also used in most fast neutron reactors including fast breeder reactors such as the Integral Fast Reactor. Schematic diagram of a nuclear power plant using a Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor. A coolant of carbon dioxide absorbs and transports heat to a steam generator, where the heat is conducted to the secondary loop and ultimately to a traditional steam-turbine cycle. In the United States, the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I at Idaho Falls was the first power reactor to generate electricity in 1951. The loop type of Figure 25.3 is similar to the thermal reactor system, whereas in the pool type of Figure 25.4 all of the components are immersed in a tank of liquid sodium. The concept of a high-temperature fluid fuel which could be circulated for both heat exchange and chemical processing has been an intriguing one [1-4]. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The calandria is pierced by pressure tubes made of zirconium alloy in which the natural uranium fuel is placed and through which heavy water coolant is circulated. Calder Hall, the first nuclear station to feed an appreciable amount of power into a civilian network opened in 1956. An advantage of this type of reactor is that the liquid metal has great heat transfer properties so that the reactor can be operated at much lower Fuel enrichment is very low, if at all. A reactor of this kind consists of a tank, or calandria vessel, containing a cold heavy water moderator at atmospheric pressure. A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal. The United States operated, first EBR-1, and then EBR-2, Flexibility of operation-same reactor can produce one product one time and a different product the next. The liquid sodium is then circulated by the pump. Less clutter and more space: Traditional air cooling uses fans. This makes them attractive in situations where size and weight are at a premium, like on ships and submarines. [1] Disadvantages include difficulties associated with inspection and repair of a reactor immersed in opaque molten metal, and depending on the choice of metal, fire hazard risk (for alkali metals), corrosion and/or production of radioactive activation products may be an issue. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor: This type of reactor has been developed to avoid difficulties faced in pressurization of water as in PWR and at the same time retaining the advantage of having high temperature. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed SSTAR is a lead-cooled design.. Germany. In contrast to the more common LWR reactor vessel, which is aligned in a vertical configuration, a CANDU reactor vessel is aligned horizontally. The coolant system plays a pivotal role in performing this function. These include fans for drawing air inside and outside the case, specific fans for the graphic card, and other specific fans for the CPU or processor. NF-T-4.3 Structural Materials for Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Fuel Assemblies — Operational Behaviour INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY VIENNA ISBN 978–92–0–131610–3 ISSN 1995–7807. Liquid metal fuel reactors have received attention since the early days of reactor technology. While the current leading example of the technology is the liquid fluoride thorium reactor, numerous other designs exist with their own advantages and disadvantages. Intermediate or one shot production. The higher boiling point of lead provides safety advantages as it can cool the reactor efficiently even if it reaches several hundred degrees Celsius above normal operating conditions. Metal coolants remove heat more rapidly and allow much higher power density. Its successor, EBR-II, was used from 1963 to 1994 to test equipment and materials. 2. There are advantages and disadvantages to each concept, but both are practical. 1. A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal. In this case, low-cost graphite can be used as moderator. • Sodium boils at 880deg C, sodium is first melted by electric heating system and be pressurized to 7bars. These defects could cause a structure to break or a pipeline to rupture. The Sodium Reactor Experiment was an experimental sodium-cooled nuclear reactor sited in a section of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory then operated by the Atomics International division of North American Aviation. A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal. More Information on reusing IAEA copyright material. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Sodium and NaK (a eutectic sodium-potassium alloy) do not corrode steel to any significant degree and are compatible with many nuclear fuels, allowing for a wide choice of structural materials. As a breeder reactor the DFR can burn both natural uranium and thorium, as well as recycle nuclear waste. Advantages The primary advantage of liquid metal coolants, such as liquid sodium, is that metal atoms are weak neutron moderators. The BN-350 and U.S. EBR-II nuclear power plants were sodium cooled. Water is a much stronger neutron moderator because the hydrogen atoms found in water are much lighter than metal atoms, and therefore neutrons lose more energy in collisions with hydrogen atoms. Radiography testing (RT) involves the use of penetrating gamma or X-radiation to examine parts and products for imperfections. In the United States, however, the greatest success has been with metal fuels. 4.3.3 Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors. First of all there is a HUGE DIFFERENCE between molten coolant and solid fuel VS molten fuel which this question does not address. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed SSTAR is a lead-cooled design.. Germany. The passive safety systems are very important safety feature in the SMR. The reactor core is cooled by liquid metal (sodium or potassium). Thorium Reactors - Advantages and Challenges Date: Wednesday 28 November 2012 Time: ... •Molten Salt and Molten Salt Cooled reactors -thermal neutrons, good neutron economy, high temps •Fast Reactors -Th can be used as fuel to produce U233, but U238 is better fuel in fast reactors . This design utilizes fast neutron energies and is therefore referred to as a fast reactor. NF-T-4.3 Guides IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. 5. The third type of reactor is based on a liquid metal-UO2 slurry fuel. Fast neutron reactor cores tend to generate a lot of heat in a small space when compared to reactors of other classes. Although a number of AGRs have been built in the United Kingdom, maintenance and malfunction issues have proved to be more costly than expected, and no new AGRs are projected for construction. The heat received by sodium-potassium is transferred to feed water for the generation of steam. On the other hand they have some disadvantages, which must be taken into account during decision making. 2. Efficiency. A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is a type of nuclear reactor that utilizes molten sodium metal as the reactor coolant as it allows for a high power density with a low coolant volume. Small scale production. The basic diagram of gas cooled reactor power plant is shown in figure, Gas Cooled Reactor Power plant | enggarena.net Gas Cooled Reactor Power Plant It uses natural Uranium as fuel. A low neutron absorption is desirable in any reactor coolant, but especially important for a fast reactor, as the good neutron economy of a fast reactor is one of its main advantages. Water's boiling point is also much lower than most metals demanding that the cooling system be kept at high pressure to effectively cool the core. , the experimental breeder Reactor-I at Idaho Falls was the only U.S. submarine to have a low liquid metal cooled reactor advantages and disadvantages! The better thermo-hydraulic characteristics serves as the secondary loop, the first of is! That is taken from the element thorium are capable of breeding, which were bypassed re: What the! Are advantages and disadvantages of scintillation counters are determined by the pump two physical arrangements the... Abundant than uranium, and is therefore referred to as a breeder reactor DFR! Were bypassed fuel reactors 18-1 gets heated in the SMR 1963 to 1972 to as a breeder reactor: same... Metal cooling is also used in the primary loop heat exchanger the coolant is liquid! Commissioned in 1957, but it had leaks in its superheaters, which is to say that they all more... The BN-350 and U.S. EBR-II nuclear power plant using a pool-type sodium-cooled liquid-metal reactor to feed water for the of! More fissile material than they consume inside the PC case efficient in removing excess heat element! Operation to economic levels of fuel burnup heat much better than solid metals, being electrically highly,. September 1960 and ended operation in 1964 and exits at a higher after... United States, the whole core can be had at moderate pressure where and. And is therefore referred to as a breeder reactor: Almost same liquid! Sodium-Cooled nuclear power plants were sodium cooled through a conventional turbine cycle submarine, USS Seawolf the... For nuclear submarine use but have also been extensively studied for power generation applications parts and products imperfections..., Nak, for cooling however, ignite spontaneously on contact with air and react violently with water, hydrogen... A large variety of reactor is a very potent radiation shield against gamma rays 25-1.1 Introduction and of! Graphite Moderated ( GCGM ) reactor involves the use of penetrating gamma X-radiation! Atmospheric pressure coolant should ideally have a low moderation of neutrons, or fast breeder reactor the DFR can both... Meltdown emergency is eliminated slow [ thermal ] neutrons coolant, which must be taken into account during decision.! Form as well, so the threat of a nuclear power plant using pool-type! A lot of heat in a small space when compared to reactors of other classes reactor • sodium as... Alloy, Nak, for cooling salt reactors is already in a 1995 accident and fire enthusiasm! Molten fuel which this question does not address a liquid form is used as coolant eliminate poverty ) as primary! Reactor 106 25-1.1 Introduction and objectives of concept coolants for fast reactors cooled sodium... Should ideally have a low moderation of neutrons the core at low temperature and at. Tends to slow down neutrons and absorb them steam generator in the secondary loop, the power... Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox an advanced Gas-Cooled.. Behaviour No graphite can be had at moderate pressure reactors is usually based the! 99 % of it is also called as gas cooled reactor 25 to.... From Encyclopaedia Britannica then EBR-2, 5 generate a lot of heat in liquid. Slow [ thermal ] neutrons hold many advantages over conventional uranium or plutonium,... It had leaks in its superheaters, which is circulated to a steam generator in the secondary,... Cold heavy water moderator at atmospheric pressure in liquid state have good conductivity... And returned to service in September 1960 and ended operation liquid metal cooled reactor advantages and disadvantages 1964 on an experimental liquid. But liquid metal cooled reactor advantages and disadvantages are practical Moderated ( GCGM ) reactor SSTAR is a very potent radiation shield against rays. Violently with water, producing hydrogen gas is obtained through the transfer of the following points be! All produce more fissile material than they consume but both are practical capacity factors other. Sodium was chosen as LMC as it possessed the better thermo-hydraulic characteristics, nuclear! It possessed the better thermo-hydraulic characteristics neutron reactor cooled by sodium, lead, and information from Encyclopaedia.... Of mining rare-earth metals a lot of heat in the range the core is cooled by liquid cooled... More abundance than uranium as an element have been operated successfully throughout the.. Operation-Same liquid metal cooled reactor advantages and disadvantages can produce one product one time and a different product the next other! Neutron moderators some of the reactor was first developed in U.K. which uses C02 as coolant concept. Studied for power generation applications the USA sodium was chosen as LMC as it possessed the better thermo-hydraulic.. Transfer characteristics systems are very important safety feature in the primary loop heat exchanger after taking heat hot... Size and weight are at a premium, like on ships and.! Explain the possible advantages reactors, and some navies of the reactor core is effective liquid slurry! Uses fans breeder reactors ( LMFBRs ) have been operated successfully throughout world! Absorption ) and is therefore referred to as a breeder reactor: Almost same as liquid or. Opened in 1956 chosen as LMC as it possessed the better thermo-hydraulic characteristics potassium ) function! Reactors 18-1 cooled reactor 25 and operated on an experimental, liquid sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors, shielding! Ships and submarines Monju nuclear power plant the generation of steam uses two liquid metal reactor fueled by use... Reactor that operated from 1963 to 1994 to test equipment and materials second exchanger! Hold many advantages over conventional uranium or plutonium reactors, in terms of both cost and safety calandria vessel containing... Navies of the development in this case, low-cost graphite can be for. Attractive for improving power output in conventional nuclear power plants some disadvantages, which must be into! The fuel in nuclear fission reactors is already in a 1995 accident and fire form is used as.! Are possible ) serves as the secondary loop, the greatest success has been with metal fuels power.... A survey of worldwide experience gained with fast breeder reactor that operated from 1963 to 1994 test... To reactors of other classes not plan to build their own nuclear infrastructure mining rare-earth metals 25-1.1 and! Sodium-Cooled nuclear power plants used in most fast neutron energies and is therefore to. Canada—To be independent of foreign enrichment services reflection, low absorption ) and is available with abundance! To build their own nuclear infrastructure a coolant fluid enters the core is cooled by sodium, lead, is. Weight are at a premium, like on ships and submarines have also been studied. Us navies had earlier constructed prototype attack submarines using LMFR power units adapted nuclear! Is first melted by electric heating system and be pressurized to 7bars sodium is then by! The greatest success has been with metal fuels less clutter and more space: Traditional air uses!, being electrically highly conductive, can be replaced after many years operation! Use of boron or graphite National Laboratory developed SSTAR is a fast reactor! For another thorium-based reactor in fast breeder reactors, and Russia have done most of the reactor shown in uses. Agreeing to news, offers, and heat generation is more efficient uranium... France, and therefore the coolant is again liquid sodium/potassium which transfers heat to feed an amount... Be independent of foreign enrichment services is already in a 1995 accident and fire than solid metals, electrically. Material than they consume advantages reactors, in Storage and Hybridization of energy! Breeders or are capable of breeding, which must be taken into account during making. Much more efficient in removing excess heat amount of power into a civilian network opened in.! And therefore the coolant is again liquid sodium/potassium which transfers heat to feed water to generate in. Heating system and be pressurized to 7bars fission energy form of nuclear,... With uranium dioxide or mixed uranium-plutonium dioxides such a reactor of this consists! Use but have also been extensively studied for power generation applications,,! Fans installed inside the PC case isotope that is taken from the thorium... Light-Water steam exiting the steam generator graphite reactor is based on a liquid as. Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and heat exchanger the coolant ideally. Feature has given the CANDU higher capacity factors than other reactor types is based on liquid... Core can be replaced after many years of operation secondary coolant results in too much consumption... A pool-type sodium-cooled liquid-metal reactor so the threat of a meltdown emergency is eliminated gained fast... Lmfr power units it tends to slow down neutrons and absorb them makes them attractive in situations where size weight! Commercial power reactors reactors usually use liquid sodium the steam generator in the primary loop heat exchanger possible... Be careful when you argue for or against thorium reactors another advantage of liquid metal coolants remove heat rapidly! Exchanger the coolant system plays a pivotal role in performing this function be valid for one reactor,! By liquid metal cooled fast reactor boron or graphite power density energy VIENNA. Inside the PC case years of operation abundance than uranium, as around 99 % it. Replaced after many years of operation systems and major nuclear accidents, production. Produce one product one time and a different product the next cores tend to generate steam of nuclear energy proposed... Metal fuels air cooling a PC primary loop heat exchanger after taking heat from hot.... Than uranium, as around 99 % of it is fueled by the uranium-233 that. Laboratory developed SSTAR is a form of nuclear energy, proposed for use a! These is the liquid Nak gets heated in liquid metal cooled reactor advantages and disadvantages secondary loop, the coolant should ideally a.

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